How much work (in J) required to lift chain?

A chain lying on the ground is 10 m long and its mass is 80 kg. How much work (in J) is required to raise one end of the chain to a height of 6 m?

If 10 meters is 80kg, then 6m is 48kg

By raising one end of the 6m length to 6m and the other end on the ground, then the average height of the 6m section is 3m.

E = m g h
E = 48kg * 9.81m/s^2 * 3m => 1400J

Why do cell use the electron-transport chain to carry electrons from NADH to oxygen?

Why do cell use the electron-transport chain to carry electrons from NADH to oxygen?

rather than a direct redox reaction between the pair.

The electron transport chain allows more useful energy to be produced compared to a direct process.

Chains Slings Hoists from SafetyInstruction com

0 Chains Slings Hoists from SafetyInstruction comالدكتور يوسف الطيب Slings Hoists from SafetyInstruction com

Duration : 0:3:1

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How do you check a lifting chain? Ranger BEN tells you!

0 How do you check a lifting chain?  Ranger BEN tells you!All of the staff at are certified with the Lifting Equipment Engineers Association ( – here from one of our best.

Duration : 0:1:45

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PART I – Oxidative Phosphorylation, Electron Transport Chain

0 PART I   Oxidative Phosphorylation, Electron Transport Chain

Duration : 0:11:2

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Where to find Sling bar type Safety Latch Guard for doors in India.?

Searching online for the slingbar type safety latch for my home door to buy in India gave limited results for me. Walking to one or two local paintscrewspipes type hardware stores only resulted in finding the chain type ones. However i found the latch type i was looking for in a hardware store dealing more exclusively with locks and specialized door and lock equipment in Jaya Nagar 4th block BDA complex in Bangalore. I am confident that instead of searching online if you go to a more specialized lock store in your city (for example Godrej lock dealerships) i am sure you will find it too. It cost my Rs 180. For those in Bangalore who want to just to go to the same shop i did, it is in the same row inside of the BDA complex next to Misra Pedha shop. Hope this helped for those who are keen to find exactly this item.

PS : One might ask why particular on this type of safety latch. Well its commonly used in the US where we lived and provides that extra safety, where the chain cannot be cut even if someone gets their foot in the door and its easier to operate for older people.

The image of item i am taking of here is in the below link.

Remove them with white vinegar. No one likes crusty white deposits on a faucet. Try this easy solution: Before you go to bed one night, head to your kitchen for a bottle of white vinegar and three paper towels. Saturate the towels in the white vinegar and wrap them around the faucet like a cocoon. In the morning, remove thetowels. Fill the basin with warm water, plus a squirt of dishwashing liquid.

Chains, Cranes, Hoist, and Slings (9017AE)

0 Chains, Cranes, Hoist, and Slings (9017AE)Chains, Cranes, Hoist, and Slings program illustrates the proper use and maintenance of cranes and lifting devices with emphasis on safety. The most important safety feature is the operator’s knowledge of how to use, inspect, and maintain the equipment. Safety around hoisting equipment is extremely important because one little mistake can be disastrous. Damaged or worn out parts also make your equipment unsafe to use. Something that everyone must know and understand is simply this: if your equipment is unsafe to use, don’t use it. That goes for any equipment. If it’s unsafe, don’t use it. Inspect your hoisting equipment every day. Any equipment can break, wear out, or become damaged. It’s your responsibility to check it thoroughly before you use it. If something is wrong or unsafe, report it to your foreman who will take action to get it corrected.
Key Word: Chains, Cranes, Hoist, Slings, Maintenance of Cranes, Lifting Devices, Maintain Equipment, Inspection, Hoisting Equipment Safety, Damaged Parts, Equipment Unsafe, Safety Video, Safety Training, Safety DVD.

Duration : 0:11:20

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Black lifting chain and hand chain and load chain from TOOLEE.AVI

0 Black lifting chain and hand chain and load chain from  TOOLEE.AVIThe G80 chain test the measurement. these black chain made according the standard of EN818 and ISO . the lifting chain can be used for lifting and chain hoist load. These Chain by TOOLEE GROUP.

Duration : 0:3:16

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Cellular Respiration Overview Animation with Glycolysis Krebs and ETC

0 Cellular Respiration Overview Animation with Glycolysis Krebs and ETCcellular respiration
I. Energy flow & chemical cycling
a. Autotrophs — producers
i. Solar energy à chemical energy
b. Heterotrophs — consumers
i. Live off chemical energy
c. Photosynthesis:
i. Ingredients:
1. CO2 and H2O
ii. Products:
1. Glucose and O2

d. Cellular respiration
i. Plants & animals
ii. In mitochondria
iii. Waste products are ingredients for photosynthesis (& vice-versa)
II. Cellular respiration
a. Series of reactions that
i. Are oxidations
ii. Are also dehydrogenations
1. Lost electrons are accompanied by hydrogen ions (protons)
b. Therefore, what is actually lost is a hydrogen atom (1 electron, 1 proton)
c. Cells harvest energy by breaking bonds and shifting electrons from one molecule to another
i. Aerobic respiration – final electron acceptor is oxygen (O)
ii. Anaerobic respiration – final electron acceptor is inorganic molecule other than oxygen(N, etc)
iii. Fermentation – final electron acceptor is an organic molecule (analogous to ^, no O)(lipid)
d. Glucose = fuel
e. Many steps
f. 1 glucose may = 32 ATP! (usually 30 or so molecules)
g. Hydrogen transfer
h. Redox reaction (*******KNOW THIS FORMULA on slide pic)
i. Glucose is oxidized
ii. Oxygen is reduced
III. ATP production
a. The goal of cellular respiration is to produce ATP
i. Energy is released from oxidation reaction in the form of electrons
ii. Electrons are shuttled by electron carriers (e.g. NAD+) to an electron transport chain
iii. Electron energy is converted to ATP
IV. How cells make ATP
a. Cells catabolize organic molecules and produce ATP in two ways:
i. Substrate-level phosphorylation (transferring phosphate group from a substrate)(see slide)
ii. Aerobic respiration
V. 4 stages of cellular respiration
a. Glycolysis
i. Glucose à 2 pyruvate (~half glucoses)
ii. 2 ATP
iii. 2 NADH (electron carrier)
b. Pyruvate oxidation
i. 2 NADH
c. Krebs cycle (aka citric acid cycle)
i. 2 ATP
ii. 6 NADH
iii. 2 FADH2
d. Electron transport chain
VI. Stage 1: glycolysis
a. Enzymes found in cytosol
b. Priming reactions
i. 2 molecules of ATP invested
ii. Glucose is phosphorylated twice
c. Cleavage reactions
i. One 6-carbon glucose broken into two 3-carbon sugar molecules
d. Energy-harvesting reactions
i. 3-carbon sugars à pyruvate
ii. 4 ATP molecules produced directly (2 net ATP)
iii. Electrons transferred to 2 NADH
VII. Transporting electrons
a. Electron path from glucose to oxygen
b. Electron acceptors
i. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide = NAD+
1. NAD+ + 2H+ + 2e- à NADH + H+
ii. Flavin adenine dinucleotide = FAD(only used in Krebs)
1. FAD + 2H+ + 2e- à FADH2
c. Electron transport chain
i. Stepwise transfer of electrons from one protein to another
1. Releases small amounts of energy with each transfer
VIII. Recycling NADH
a. As long as food molecules are available to be converted into glucose, a cell can produce ATP
i. Continual ATP production results in accumulation of NADH and NAD+ depletion
1. NADH must be recycled into NAD+
a. With oxygen
i. Aerobic respiration
b. Without oxygen
i. Anaerobic respiration
ii. Fermentation
IX. Pyruvate oxidation (see slide pic)
a. For each pyruvate molecule
i. NAD+ reduced to NADH
ii. Pyruvate converted to acetic acid(loss of CO2)
1. Acetyl Coenzyme A (Acetyl CoA)
a. coenzyme A ‘escorts’ acetic acid into krebs
X. Running totals so far… (SEE SLIDE)
a. Stage 3: Krebs cycle
b. Occurs in the mitochondria
c. Each acetyl CoA bonds to a 4-C “acceptor” molecule to form a 6-C product
d. 6-C molecule is
i. Oxidized (lose electron)
ii. Decarboxylated (loss CO2)
1. CO2
e. 5-C molecule is oxidized & decarboxylated again
i. NADH & CO2
f. Some energy used to transfer a phosphate group to an ADP molecule to form ATP directly
g. 4-C molecule is oxidized
ii. FADH2
h. 4-C molecule is recycled
XI. Running totals so far… (SEE SLIDE)
XII. Harvesting energy
a. Series of redox reactions (the steps)
i. Release energy
ii. Repositioning electrons closer to oxygen atoms
XIII. Stage 4: electron transport chain
a. NADH & FADH2 transport electrons from food to transport chains
b. ETCs use this energy to pump H+ ions across mitochondrial membrane
c. O2 pulls those electrons down the chain, causing release of H+ ions
d. H+ ions flow into ATP synthase
i. Chemiosmosis
e. Each pair of electrons brought by NADH
i. ~2.5 ATP
f. Each pair of electrons brought by FADH2
i. ~1.5 ATP

Duration : 0:2:29

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What is the best protein powder to use for muscle gain?

I am a 19 year old college student, I have a solid muscle mass from working out but am looking to gain more muscle. I would consider myself "new" to weight lifting and am wondering what would be the best whey protein for someone like myself to use to gain muscle. I heard that Optimum Nutrition 100% is good. Thank you.

A whey isolate is best. You should find a whey isolate that has ~2 – 3 grams (2000 – 3000 milligrams) of leucine. Leucine is a branched chain amino acid (BCAA) that is scientifically linked to greater muscle mass and strength gains.

FYI: Studies have shown that taking a whey isolate with >2 grams of leucine post-workout improve muscle hypertrophy (building) significantly – if the weight training follows muscle hypertrophy protocols. Take ~25 to 40 grams of a whey isolate within an hour after your workout for optimal results.

Best of luck and good health!